congenital heart disease
#AmateAhora will be presenting today…
|Author||National Heart Lung and Blood Institute|
We will be addressing well over 150 cadets, teachers, and health aficionados. Excited to share MyHeartStory, Obesity, CHD, and Living a Healthy Lifestyle. Viva Saludable!
Congenital heart defect (CHD)…
Congenital heart anomaly is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels that is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other defects, such as long QT syndrome, affect the heart’s rhythm. Heart defects are among the most common birth defects and are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. Approximately 9 people in 1000 are born with a congenital heart defect. Many defects do not need treatment, but some complex congenital heart defects require medication or surgery.
Congenital heart defects resulted in 323,000 deaths in 2013 down from 366,000 deaths in 1990.
Signs and symptoms are related to type and severity of the heart defect. Symptoms frequently present early in life, but it is possible for some CHDs to go undetected throughout life. Some children have no signs while others may exhibit shortness of breath, cyanosis, fainting,heart murmur, under-development of limbs and muscles, poor feeding or growth, or respiratory infections. Congenital heart defects cause abnormal heart structure resulting in production of certain sounds called heart murmur. These can sometimes be detected by auscultation; however, not all heart murmurs are caused by congenital heart defects.
The cause of congenital heart disease…
May be either genetic or environmental, but is usually a combination of both.
As noted in several studies following similar body mass index (BMI) ranges, prepregnant and gestating women, who were obese (BMI ≥ 30), carried a statistically significant risk of birthing children with congenital heart defects (CHD) compared to normal-weight women (BMI= 19–24.9). Although there are minor conflicting reports, there was significant support for the risk of fetal CHD development in overweight mothers (BMI= 25-29.9). Additionally, as maternal obesity increased, the risk of heart defects did too indicating a trend between BMI and CHD odds. Altogether, these results present reasonable concern for women to achieve a normal-weight BMI prior to pregnancy to help decrease risk for fetal heart defects.
A distinct physiological mechanism has not been identified to explain the link between maternal obesity and CHD, but both pre-pregnancy folate deficiency and diabetes have been implicated in some studies. Identification of the mechanism could aid health officials to develop reduction strategies and curb CHD’s prevalence in this preventable situation.